Home > Meeting Topics and Material, News Stories > Weekly QUEST Discussion Topics and News, 28 Feb

Weekly QUEST Discussion Topics and News, 28 Feb

Weekly QUEST Discussion Topics and News
28 Feb 2014

Been a another very interesting QuEST week – topics that have consumed my QuEST bandwidth include those below – I will be prepared to discuss any of them or other items of interest to those attending or phoning in:
Inverted spectrum v2:I want to continue down this thread – because the essence of the use of color was NOT to talk about the differences in discrimination between people – but to point out that representations that are based on physics (wavelengths / ranges of wavelengths) to determine the conscious part of the representation for that aspect of the environment were NOT what humans use – to try to drive home the idea of ‘situated conceptualization’ – or if you will situation based cognition – versus the idea of defining what a particular wavelength will be consciously perceived have by its hue / saturation / brightness – So my query is at the risk of exasperating your philosopher love-hate issues:

Is there anything in the color perception literature that attempts to answer the inverted spectrum ?Inverted spectrum is the apparent possibility of two people sharing their color vocabulary and discriminations, although the colours one sees — one’s qualia — are systematically different from the colours the other person sees.
Inverted qualia***Both people call it red – although the experience of the guy on the right is the same as the experience the guy on the left has when he gets the stimulus for what they both would call a green apple *** The argument dates back to John Locke.[1] It invites us to imagine that we wake up one morning, and find that for some unknown reason all the colors in the world have been inverted. *** this part of the argument is hard for me to understand – if I wake up one morning I guess if I was a color scientist and am used to using a physical device to measure wavelengths like I look
at my HeNe laser and I know that the laser didn’t change cause I can still take those measurments – but now it appears the way a green laser pointer looks – the other option is I notice that the sky is now perceived in a different way it appears to be what I call red – so my conscious visual perception seems to have changed assuming the physics of the world has not changed*** Furthermore, we discover that no physical changes have occurred in our brains or bodies that would explain this phenomenon. ** this again is a big leap – since I don’t know the neural code and certainly don’t have a model for how glia cells could be computing etc – so to suggest that I have a means to find out that NO CHANGES have occurred is beyond me – I don’t believe qualia are magic – but I don’t know how they are generated via neurons / chemicals / glia etc but I do believe that are computed in the meat** Supporters of the existence of qualia argue that, since we can imagine this happening without contradiction, it follows that we are imagining a change in a property that determines the way things look to us, but that has no physical basis. *** be careful here – I’m not saying it has no physical basis – I think it would have to – but the point is there is no way making physical measurements that I can know what it is like for you to experience one of these states – I can imagine taking physical measurments and deducing what you will say – but not taking physical measurements and knowing what it is like for you to experience that stimuli consciously ***
Decision quality: Below was the discussion I started last week on the units of decision quality – and it led me to conclude that you can’t speak of decision quality like you can’t speak of data or information or situations in general without defining the agent that they are being discussed
with respect to – decision quality is a quale – so you have to speak of the representation / agent that is computing it and thus define the representation and thus the units for that representation – I can imagine an agent that is computing decision quality and using as its representation a = A/ta as below – that agent judges that a correct answer was found for the set of problems it is assessing and were found in a given amount of time – it therefore defines the situation/quale of decision quality based on establishing the relationships between answer generating agents by that measure – they can be related by defining the axes of the decisions evaluated over and their respective performance as measured by that agent – another agent that is differently instantiated might measure decision quality for the same set of problems completely differently – the answers could be based upon that agents assessment of one answer being better than another purely based upon how much it costs to achieve the answer …
AFRL-RI-RS-TR-2009-161 Final Technical Report June 2009 SELF-AWARE COMPUTING Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sponsored by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DARPA Order No. AH09/00 ABSTRACT: This project performed an initial exploration of a new concept for computer system design called Self-Aware Computing. A self-aware computer leverages a variety of hardware and software techniques to automatically adapt and optimize its behavior according to a set of high-level goals and its current environment. Self-aware computing systems are introspective, adaptive, self-healing, goal-oriented, and approximate. Because of these five key properties, they are efficient, resilient, and easy to program. The self-aware design concept permeates all levels of a computing system including processor microarchitecture, operating systems, compilers, runtime systems, programming libraries, and applications. The maximum benefit is achieved when all of these layers are self-aware and can work together. However, self-aware concepts can be applied at any granularity to start making an impact today. This project investigated the use of self-aware concepts in the areas of micro-architecture, operating systems and programming libraries
THE NEW CENTURY OF THE BRAIN. By: Yuste, Rafael;Church, George M. Scientific American. Mar2014, Vol. 310 Issue 3, p38-45. 8p. 5 Color Photographs, 2 Diagrams. Abstract: The article discusses research as of March 2014 into how the brain and conscious thought work, focusing on efforts towards new methods of analyzing neural circuits. Topics include the U.S. Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative, the development of techniques such as voltage imaging to perform whole-brain studies of interactions between neurons as a function of perception, and the techniques of optogenetics and optochemistry. (AN: 94480883)
Why Good Thoughts Block Better Ones. By: Bilalić, Merim; McLeod, Peter. Scientific American. Mar2014, Vol. 310 Issue 3, p74-79. 6p. 10 Color Photographs, 2 Graphs. Abstract: The article discusses the “Einstellung” effect in psychology, in which the brain ignores alternative solutions to a problem in favor of the familiar, and new research as of March 2014 by the authors and others into how it works. Topics include the discovery of the effect by psychologist Abraham Luchins, study of the effect using eyetracking experiments with chess players, and broader forms of cognitive bias stemming from the effect. (AN: 94480890)
Joshua Foer, Freelance Journalist Ted Talk: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U6PoUg7jXsA (20 minutes, light on science, but a useful/interesting narrative)Book: “Moonwalking with Einstein: The Art and Science of Remembering Everything” – really interesting talk that
demonstrates why our link game is so important – the focus of our summer student effort this year – memory champions are trained NOT born –
Brain Games Nat Geo program: Squares dark / light moving across a striped screen – appear to be stuttering as they cross – seems to be a result of when a square is in a background of low contrast they seem to speed up versus when they are in a region of high contrast they seem to slow down – ? type 1 versus type 2 processing? – low contrast allows the type 1 processing to dominate the evoked quale and thus time is handled differently than when it is dominated by the type 2 processing when high contrast and time as a distinct Type 2 result is perceived as slower velocity… Given a set of words – typed days of the week – challenge the observer to put into alphabetical order- let them struggle – possibly give them the right answer – but then ask them to immediately choose a color and a type of tool – 80% will say red hammer – idea is to consume their type 2 processing with the deliberate task then give them a query and they immediately attempt to use their type 1 processing so they pick the most common response to a color question and most common response hammer
Sandy asked some questions about Case Based Reasoning – including sending me the quote: ‘Ludwig Wittgenstein, prominent philosopher whose voluminous manuscripts were published posthumously, observed that natural concepts, such as tables and chairs are in fact polymorphic and cannot be classified by a single set of necessary and sufficient features but instead can be defined by a set of instances (i.e. cases) that have family resemblances [Watson, 1999, Wittgenstein, 2010]. ‘ So a discussion on this view and its relationship to situations/qualia might be fruitful. Introduction The Case Based Reasoning (CBR) process has been successful in the problem/solution (quale) *** certainly the case that when we get a stimulus we process it attempting if necessary to make a quale which in our QuEST formalism is a matching problem – that is we have a set of qualia that we evoke the matching one for a given stimulus *** matching and retrieval process, and therefore is a good candidate for consideration for a more general quale matching and retrieval process (framework). CBR is not a technology, but a process which can be implemented by a variety of technologies. The use of CBR as a framework should not preclude or constrain the implementation of a cognitive model or the technical implementation…
Updates on last week’s point – I had a great running discussion via email with a group on ‘Theory of Knowledge’ culminating in a whiteboard
discussion where we generated some interesting ideas on what such a theory might provide us – Andres is the keeper of the notes from that discussion but the discussion included: Theory of Knowledge – What would it look like? Given attributes of a given inference task (what is going on = perception, what happened before = recollection, what is going to happen next = projection) estimate the impact of the human (or set of humans), the computer decision aide (or set of computer decision aids) and the mixing function that accounts for redundancy is performance as well as detractions associated with fusing the two pieces. – Example: Breast cancer detection – given attributes of the problem space (textures / displays of x-rays / performance of existing human visual recognition tasks and computer learning approaches for similar machine vision tasks) estimate what human performance should be for ‘h’ and for ‘c’ and for ‘m’, then via taking some small amounts of data confirm your hypothesis versus doing a complete Bayesian clinical trial with bounds of probability estimating performance.- Example 2: given a new sensor (LIDAR) estimate relative dominance in h versus c versus m for the resulting capability -Note: M that is a function of h, c and the inference task is dominated by the situational representation mismatch between the inference task situational representation and the situational representation of the h and the c respectively



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