Archive

Archive for October, 2011

QUEST Discussion Topics Oct 28

October 28, 2011 Leave a comment

QUEST Discussion Topics Oct 28

Below are the topics Capt Amerika will come prepared to discuss – attendees (in the room or on the phone) can pick and choose what interest them the most

Sci American Mind issue review:
1.) The Colchester Zoo in England is home to a community of man- drills, the largest of the monkeys. One of these mandrills, a female named Milly, began covering her eyes with her hand when she was three. A dozen years later Milly and her zoo mates continue to perform this gesture, which appears to mean “do not disturb.” The signal is the first gesture with cultural roots reported in monkeys.
2.) Successful batters often report that the base- ball looked “huge” just before they hit a home run. This effect, dubbed action-specific perception
3.) study published online February 11 in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin suggests you are more likely to succeed if you solve it on another person’s behalf
4.) For a dad, the scent of a child, along with physical contact, appears to be pivotal to making new neurons grow. Those neurons form the foundation of a lasting bond between father and child. The challenges of child care are likely to be good sources of stress. The hormones induced by good stress can stimulate the growth of new brain cells.
5.) Most children start counting after the age of two, after observing much tallying done by parents, siblings and television characters. By watching others count, 18-month-old babies acquire a sense of numbers long before they can speak.
6.) By sifting through such data, we and other re- searchers in this area have uncovered a new predictor of how long people live: the scores they obtain on an intelligence test when they are at a young age… The lower a person’s measured intelligence, the greater that individual’s risk of living a shorter time, developing both mental and physical ailments later in life and dying from cardiovascular disease, suicide or an accident. More surprising still is that low intelligence is a stronger predictor than several better- known risk factors for illness and death, such as obesity and high blood pressure.
7.) The brain holds onto false facts, even after they have been retracted – After people realize the facts have been fudged, they do their best to set the record straight: judges tell juries to forget misleading testimony; newspapers publish errata. But even explicit warnings to ignore misinformation cannot erase the damage done
8.) Research suggests that motherhood enhances certain types of cognition, improves resistance to stress and sharpens some kinds of memory. On the face of it, the fact that the nervous system manages to transform a new mother from a self-centered organism into an other-focused caregiver is actually quite impressive.
9.) Positive and negative expectations influence how well drugs work – An upbeat attitude can do more than put a spring in your step; it can also improve medical outcomes. Although the power of positive thinking is clear, little is known about how negative mind- sets affect the success of therapies.
10.) We manipulate our memories to brace for future hardships – Can our expectations for the future change how we remember the past? According to a new study published in the Journal of Experimental Psychology, they can—we remember unpleasant experiences more negatively if we expect to endure them again
11.) Experiments with a simple mirror setup can reveal much about the workings of the brain. BY VILAYANUR S. RAMACHANDRAN AND DIANE ROGERS-RAMACHANDRAN – phenomenon intermanual touch referral- Remarkably, in controlled clinical trials, we and others have found mirror therapy to relieve paralysis from cerebrovascular stroke. This relief may be partly because the paralysis could be learned and partly because many paralyzed limbs also have a form of CRPS associated with them (Consider the curious but tragic pain disorder called complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). If you suffer a fracture after your finger is jammed in a doorway, pain ensues. Chronic pain results in a reflex immobilization of the hand to prevent further injury and promote healing)
12.) Self-control—the ability to regulate our attention, emotions and behaviors— emerges in childhood and grows throughout life, but the skill varies widely among individuals. Past studies have reported that self-control is partially inherited and partially learned and that those with less self-control are more likely to be unemployed, engage in unhealthy behaviors such as overeating, and live a shorter life
13.) In recent years, however, scientists have found the opposite: being raised bilingual may actually facilitate the development of certain language and cognitive skills. These aptitudes include mental flexibility, abstract thinking and working memory, a type of short-term memory essential for learning and problem solving.
14.) So far studies indicate that the language areas of monolingual and bilingual brains develop similarly, but certain regions, such as the inferior frontal cortex, which is involved with both language and thinking skills, appear to be more active in bilingual children, particularly when they are reading… What’s striking is how many of the benefits are nonverbal,”
15.) Tickling a rat’s whiskers after it has a stroke prevents brain damage – Strokes cripple more people in the U.S. than any other disease. Modern drugs can unblock clogged arteries if patients get to care facilities in time. But the longer the trip to the hospital, the more nerve cells die from lack of blood. Better ways to avert brain damage could dramatically improve patients’ quality of life. Recently a team of neuroscientists stumbled on a very low tech way to completely prevent stroke damage in rats: tickle their whiskers.
16.) these findings suggest that dependence might also arise from a partner’s unique ability to assist with life’s goals. Indeed, long-term partners may develop a shared self-regulatory system, relying on one another for support with mustering the discipline needed to face life’s challenges. In the short term, relying on a partner for help with self-control in one arena means we could be undermining our commitment to that specific aim. But Fitzsimons and Finkel suggest there could a surprising trade-off: because we are investing more in our relationships, we might well end up possessing more discipline for a couple’s shared goals. In the end, the partnership benefits.
17.) Rubber – third hand illusion: The experimenter then swiftly picked up a kitchen knife and swiped it toward one of the right hands. Participants reacted with a flash of fear regardless of whether the knife was plunging toward the real or rubber right hand, indicating that the brain had started to think of the false hand as part of the body, too.
18.) found that the easier the object was to identify, the better the participants liked it—and the more activity they recorded in the facial muscles used in laughing. The results suggest that ease of recognition is an important factor in likeability.
19.) “mirror-touch synesthesia.” When watching another individual being touched, these people actually feel a touch on the same part of their own body.

Other non Sci-Am articles of interest to us this week:

1.) MacEvoy and Russell Epstein of the University of Pennsylvania measured the brain activity of 28 people viewing one of four scenes: a bathroom, kitchen, street intersection or playground. Participants then saw isolated objects associated with each scene, allowing the researchers to record the neural signature of each object. MacEvoy and Epstein focused on a particular part of the brain called the lateral occipital cortex, or LOC, which had responded to objects in previous studies. When combined, the signatures of single objects closely matched the brain responses to entire scenes, the researchers found. For instance, the average LOC response to a stove and a fridge matched the response to an entire kitchen. To the LOC, these scenes are a simple combination of parts. “I think it’s neat that a sum of the information from the objects is what makes up the scene, as far as the LOC is concerned,” Bernhardt-Walther says. “There is no additional magical ingredient. There’s no scene glue somewhere.”
2.) Article by Barsalou – ‘the situated nature of concepts’ – american journal of psychology, fall 2006, vol 119, no 3 p 349-384, theories of concepts – concept encoding that we’ve focused on in quest – generally ignore background situations focusing on bottom up stimulus based processing. a taxonomy of situations is proposed in which grain size, meaningfulness and tangibility distinguish the cumulative situations

QUEST Discussion Topics, Oct 21

October 20, 2011 Leave a comment

QUEST Discussion Topics Oct 21

1.) Recently in quest we’ve been discussing the use in nature of a level of representation that we call sys2 = qualia = ‘simulation’ – we use the word simulation because many of its characteristics mimic work we can relate to in virtual worlds – we create this illusory cartesean theater to allow us to integrate all potentially relevant context – but one of the key ideas we’ve been pursuing is that much of that illusory cartesean theater is ‘invented’ – it isn’t just a representation of the sensory data – it is ‘confabulated’ – the optimization criteria is to be stable consistent and useful versus being in high fidelity agreement with reality – we want to add to our discussion this week the topic of AMODAL PERCEPTION – the article provided by Trevor from Prof Briscoe from OU.

2.) Topic – our goal was to use this topic to address the Westercamp ATR single and multi-sensor diagrams from the QUEST perspective – Goal is to redraw the Westercamp ATR diagrams compliant with QUEST sys1/sys2 – make them situation based instead of concept encoding based – everything in context – the multi-sensor diagrams are pushing that way already! – what is sys1 and what is sys2 in those diagrams? Then applying our tenet that the fundamental unit of cognition is a situation how can we implement a general approach to ATR that is situation based! The goal of our proposed Burka lab idea is to focus on a new direction in layered sensing exploitation – situational pattern recognition. So we want to define situations and apply that definition for the functions we seek in ‘ATR’ (tracking, ID, …). Then I want to review a recent example from the VIRAT researchers that is related to our view of situations and relate it to this revamp of the Westercamp ATR diagrams. The Virat work to be discussed is related to some of their publications.
• Turek M., Hoogs A., Collins R., Unsupervised Learning of Functional Categories in Video Scenes , European Conference on Computer Vision, Springer, Sep-2010
• Oh S., Hoogs A., Turek M., Collins R., Content-based Retrieval of Functional Objects in Video using Scene Context , European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV), Sep-2010
• Cuntoor N., Basharat A., Perera A., Hoogs A., Track Initialization in Low Frame Rate and Low Resolution Videos , International Conference on Pattern Recognition, IEEE, Aug-2010
• Oh S., Hoogs A., Unsupervised Learning of Activities in Video using Scene Context , International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), IEEE, Aug-2010

3.) We’ve proposed one Burka lab experiment to investigate the application of QUEST concepts to solve the problem of what bits to exploit and at what resolution in a layered sensing environment. The idea is that we don’t have the option of processing all bits sensed for all possible meanings so we need an approach to decide what we look at and how we look at it – Attention (Dr. Young is developing a lecture for us on the modern views of attention). The best analogy is snail mail. When we go to the mail box we sort the material at different levels of resolution. Some things we discard by just looking at the envelope. Some we read the details of the source then discard. Some we actually have to open to discard. Some we have to read all the contents to decide how to process. The idea is to architect a multi-resolution Burka experiment where conflicts between the ‘simulation’ (sys2 representation) and the observations at coarse resolutions can drive exploitation resources and when those conflicts don’t exists we can avoid expending those exploitation resources and potentially not drown in that data. We specifically want to add the details for ATRs and Trackers. We would also like to discuss the potential integration of human analyst in this discussion using technology to measure their sys1 response to a given set of data at a given resolution.

Categories: Uncategorized

QUEST Discussion Topics, Oct 14

October 13, 2011 Leave a comment

QUEST topics Oct 14

1.) Topic – the first topic this week is to address the Westercamp ATR single and multi-sensor diagrams from the QUEST perspective – Goal is to redraw the Westercamp ATR diagrams compliant with QUEST sys1/sys2 – make them situation based instead of concept encoding based – everything in context – the multi-sensor diagrams are pushing that way already! – what is sys1 and what is sys2 in those diagrams? Then applying our tenet that the fundamental unit of cognition is a situation how can we implement a general approach to ATR that is situation based! The goal of our proposed Burka lab idea is to focus on a new direction in layered sensing exploitation – situational pattern recognition. So we want to define situations and apply that definition for the functions we seek in ‘ATR’ (tracking, ID, …). Then I want to review a recent example from the VIRAT researchers that is related to our view of situations and relate it to this revamp of the Westercamp ATR diagrams. The Virat work to be discussed is related to some of their publications.
(* Turek M., Hoogs A., Collins R., Unsupervised Learning of Functional Categories in Video Scenes , European Conference on Computer Vision, Springer, Sep-2010
* Oh S., Hoogs A., Turek M., Collins R., Content-based Retrieval of Functional Objects in Video using Scene Context , European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV), Sep-2010
* Cuntoor N., Basharat A., Perera A., Hoogs A., Track Initialization in Low Frame Rate and Low Resolution Videos , International Conference on Pattern Recognition, IEEE, Aug-2010
* Oh S., Hoogs A., Unsupervised Learning of Activities in Video using Scene Context , International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), IEEE, Aug-2010

2.) We’ve proposed one Burka lab experiment to investigate the application of QUEST concepts to solve the problem of what bits to exploit and at what resolution in a layered sensing environment. The idea is that we don’t have the option of processing all bits sensed for all possible meanings so we need an approach to decide what we look at and how we look at it – Attention (Dr. Young is developing a lecture for us on the modern views of attention). The best analogy is snail mail. When we go to the mail box we sort the material at different levels of resolution. Some things we discard by just looking at the envelope. Some we read the details of the source then discard. Some we actually have to open to discard. Some we have to read all the contents to decide how to process. The idea is to architect a multi-resolution Burka experiment where conflicts between the ‘simulation’ (sys2 representation) and the observations at coarse resolutions can drive exploitation resources and when those conflicts don’t exists we can avoid expending those exploitation resources and potentially not drown in that data. We specifically want to add the details for ATRs and Trackers. We would also like to discuss the potential integration of human analyst in this discussion using technology to measure their sys1 response to a given set of data at a given resolution. We will examine the devices offered by the company Affectiva for this purpose.

3.) Also, a paper from Trevor detailing a philosophical take on dealing with occluded objects using mental imagery with perception.

Robert Briscoe (2011). Mental Imagery and the Varieties of Amodal Perception. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 92 (2):153-173.

http://philpapers.org/archive/BRIMIA.1.pdf

QUEST Discussion Topics, Oct 7

October 6, 2011 Leave a comment

QUEST Discussion Topics Oct 7

1.) Topic – below the next two topics are the ones we will continue to talk about – but we will add some new direction this week – after reviewing the issues in automatic target recognition we want to recall our bumper sticker – the fundamental unit of cognition is a situation! The goal of the new Burka lab idea is to make it a focus on a new direction in layered sensing exploitation and I hope that new thrust will be situational pattern recognition. So we want to define situations. Then I want to give a recent example from the VIRAT researchers that is related to our view of situations. This is related to some of their publications and to a recent article on impact of processing of scenes. Specifically the impact of object recognition integrated within the context of the general outline of the scene information. The researchers presented to 28 people four scenes (bathroom, kitchen, intersection, and a playground). They then were presented objects associated with entities in those environments and the neural signatures for those objects representations were recorded (specifically in the lateral occipital cortex – LOC). The combination of the simple object representations was then compared to the scene presentation. The combination of the stove and the fridge responses matched the response to the kitchen. The implication is that within the LOC the representation of the scene is a simple combination of parts.

* Turek M., Hoogs A., Collins R., Unsupervised Learning of Functional Categories in Video Scenes , European Conference on Computer Vision, Springer, Sep-2010
* Oh S., Hoogs A., Turek M., Collins R., Content-based Retrieval of Functional Objects in Video using Scene Context , European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV), Sep-2010
* Cuntoor N., Basharat A., Perera A., Hoogs A., Track Initialization in Low Frame Rate and Low Resolution Videos , International Conference on Pattern Recognition, IEEE, Aug-2010
* Oh S., Hoogs A., Unsupervised Learning of Activities in Video using Scene Context , International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), IEEE, Aug-2010

2.) Topic: to continue the brainstorming session on the BURKA lab experiment and its potential use of their modeling / simulation environment as the sys2 cognition engine for a quest agent. This week we provided to some a homework assignment – redraw the conventional single / multi-sensor ATR diagrams using the concepts we’ve discussed in QUEST. We want to review the ideas of the audience on how we would propose to revolutionize one of our core missions (ATR – automatic target recognition). We will start by reviewing the current key ideas to improve ATR. Then we will discuss ideas on mapping those into our QUEST intuition / deliberative dual system formalism. Our hope is that this will lead to a specific set of ideas for the Burka lab researchers (for example how to improve tracking …).

3.) We’ve proposed one Burka lab experiment to investigate the application of QUEST concepts to solve the problem of what bits to exploit and at what resolution in a layered sensing environment. The idea is that we don’t have the option of processing all bits sensed for all possible meanings so we need an approach to decide what we look at and how we look at it. The best analogy is snail mail. When we go to the mail box we sort the material at different levels of resolution. Some things we discard by just looking at the envelope. Some we read the details of the source then discard. Some we actually have to open to discard. Some we have to read all the contents to decide how to process. The idea is to architect a multi-resolution Burka experiment where conflicts between the ‘simulation’ (sys2 representation) and the observations at coarse resolutions can drive exploitation resources and when those conflicts don’t exists we can avoid expending those exploitation resources and potentially not drown in that data. We specifically want to add the details for ATRs and Trackers. We would also like to discuss the potential integration of human analyst in this discussion using technology to measure their sys1 response to a given set of data at a given resolution. We will examine the devices offered by the company Affectiva for this purpose.

4.) Someday we will get to the other topic – the recent Sci Amer ‘Mind’ issue July 2011, a word doc with some snippets from some of the articles can be provided to stimulate discussion.

Categories: Uncategorized